Mekelle earlier the capital of Enderta Awraja in Tigray, is today the capital city of Tigray National Regional State. It is situated around 780 kilometers (480 mi) north of the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, with a height of 2,254 meters (7,395 ft) above ocean level. Officially, Mekelle is viewed as a Special Zone, which is separated into seven sub-urban areas. Mekelle is the monetary, social, and political center of northern Ethiopia.
Mekelle has developed quickly since 1991. In 1984 it had 61,583 occupants, in 1994, 96,938 (96.5% being Tigrinya-speakers), and in 2006 169,200 (for example 4% of the number of inhabitants in Tigray). Mekelle is 2.6 occasions bigger than Adigrat, the second biggest provincial focus, It is the fifth biggest city in Ethiopia, after Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Adama, and Gondar. The biggest extent of the number of inhabitants in Mekelle relies upon government business, trade, and little scale endeavors. Mekelle now has new building, concrete and material production lines, creating for the neighborhood and outside market. There is a rising college which created out of the pre-1991 Arid Agricultural College, and around twelve other legislative and private universities.
Mekelle is accepted to have developed from a thirteenth-century villa called Enda Meseqel (later Enda Medhane Alem), turning into a town by the mid-nineteenth century, when rasWolde Selassie of Enderta made Antalo his seat of intensity, and the district of Mekelle (40 kilometers (25 mi) toward the north) his recreational focus). In the duty records of Atse Tewodros II, Mekelle shows up as a tributary locale inside Enderta with its very own Negarit.
The credit for Mekelle's development into a local capital goes to Atse Yohannes IV who made Mekelle political capital of his extending state. He is more likely than not picked the spot for its vital closeness both to rich rural territories (of Raya Azebo) and to the Afar salt nation. Mekelle's situation on the course to Shewa, the power base of Yohannes' fundamental opponent Menelik could have been another factor. Three foundations still significant for present-day Mekelle were established by Yohannes:
The amazing castle worked in 1882-84 by his designer Giacomo Naretti, together with the architect Engedashet Schimper and still structures the core of Mekelle.
The enormous market Edaga Senuy ("Monday Market")
The congregation, at Debre Gennet Medhane Alem, worked after the arrival from Raya Azebo battle in 1871.
During the 1880s, Mekelle turned into the Emperor's capital city. Among the factor that further quickened Mekele's development and urbanization were the foundation of private quarters by the "respectability" and court hirelings, the unmistakable quality of the amole salt market and the resulting foundation of nearby and remote exchanging and word related networks, and Mekelle'a vital position as a travel community for products of the long-separation exchange courses of northeastern Ethiopia, connected to the Red Sea ports, and to northern and focal Ethiopia. By setting up a market in Mekelle, Yohannes could draw on the northern exchange courses just as the salt band courses to the town, benefiting from his political leverage.
The progression of Atse Menelik II of Shewa flagged an exchanging reorientation from northern to southern Ethiopia (focused in Shewa). The new capital Addis Ababa immediately overwhelmed Mekelle, which, in any case, held its political significance as the area and provincial organization focal point of Enderta and Tigray individually through the twentieth century, and its affordable job in the Ethiopian salt exchange.
During the Italian War of 1895-96, Mekelle turned into a significant site in the contention. After the fall of Adwa in spring 1895, rasMengasha Yohannes withdrew from his dad's capital Mekelle following the exhortation of Atse Menelik II. Mekelle was involved by the Italians without a shot and coordinated into the Colonia Eritrea; from here the Italians expanded their occupation south, up to Ambalage. The Italian armed force built up their fortification close to the Enda Eyesus church above Mekelle in October 1895. After the re-control of Ambalage in late 1895, the fortification was assaulted by Ethiopian troops, who cut the Italians' water supply. At the point when the Italians gave up in January 1896, Menelik enabled them to withdraw to their fortress Adigrat, most likely planning to avoid an acceleration of the contention, and he delegated his own senator over Enderta at Mekelle, Dejazmach Tedla Abaguben, so as to check the insubordinate Tigrayan sovereigns.